Pozo / La Panza OHV Management Plan

Los Padres National Forest
Santa Lucia Ranger District
November 2013

POZO / LA PANZA OHV MANAGEMENT PLAN

PART I – BACKGROUND
•    Introduction
•    Purpose of the Plan
•    Location and Setting
•    Vicinity Map
PART II – MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
•    Vision
•    Mission
•    Existing Conditions
•    Desired Conditions
•    Goals
o    Trail Maintenance
o    Restoration
o    Sign Plan
o    Volunteerism / Partnerships
o    Education / Interpretation
o    Wet Weather Gate Management
o    Mixed Use
•    Management Constraints and Considerations
o    Fire Prevention
o    Target Shooting
o    Enforcement
o    Fees
o    Environmental Consequences
o    NEPA
o    Grants
PART III – IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
•    Trail System Program Management
•    Trail System
•    Trail System Facilities
•    Planned Projects
PART IV – MONITORING PLAN
•    Trail Management Objective (TMO)
•    Trail Assessment and Condition Survey (TRACS)
•    Habitat Management Program (HMP)
APPENDIX A    OHV Trails Programmatic Biological Assessment 2012 / Trail Maintenance Levels and Design Standards
APPENDIX B    TRACS Survey Spreadsheet
APPENDIX C    Wet Weather Gate Closure Plan
APPENDIX D  Sign Inventory
APPENDIX F References

PART I – BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION
The Pozo / La Panza place is identified in the 2005 Los Padres Land Management Plan (LMP), as a vast rolling chaparral landscape which includes a motorized recreation network supporting dispersed recreation activities, grazing areas for wild horses and livestock, and private in holdings in a remote part San Luis Obispo County.  Program Emphasis described for the area in the LMP includes off- highway vehicles (OHV) use and dispersed recreational opportunity while resolving conflicts with other important resources.
The Pozo / La Panza Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Recreation Area multi-use trail system includes routes designated for motorcycles, All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs), and 4X4s as well as mountain bike, hiking and horse trails.  On clear days, the views of the coastline from the Sierra Mountains to the higher peaks at Pozo Summit (elevation 2635 ft) and Black Mountain (elevation 3622 ft.)  draw locals and visitor from as far as the San Joaquin Valley and the San Francisco Bay Area.
The present trail system developed over time from casual use of the trail system that existed when the National Forest was established at the turn of the century. The system expanded over time though public use of fire lines, fuel breaks, mining and power line roads, and other paths.  The system was not designed to accommodate the level and type of recreation uses which began to emerge in the 1950’s, particularly off-highway vehicles.
In 1962 a study evaluated what restrictions were needed on off-highway vehicle use on the Los Padres National Forest. In 1964, after meeting with interest groups and individuals, the Forest recommended no use restrictions be placed on National Forest system lands within San Luis Obispo County. Eight years later, in response to an increase in off-highway use nationwide, President Nixon signed executive order 11644 establishing policies and procedures to ensure controlled use and protection of natural resources. In 1973 the Regional Forester, in response to the President’s direction, declared a moratorium on cross-country off-highway vehicle use throughout California pending completion of individual National Forest off –highway vehicle plans.
The Santa Lucia Ranger District (SLRD) Off-Highway Vehicle Plan was completed in 1974 by District Ranger W.R. Griffin.   This SLRD OHV Plan was developed with extensive input from the Central Coast Trail Riders Association (CCTRA) . The SLRD plan was incorporated into the 1976 Forest-wide Off-Highway Vehicle Management Plan.  The 1976 Plan was accompanied by an environmental analysis that evaluated past off-highway vehicle management and discussed effects on forest resources.  The plan designated specific areas, roads, and trails available for use by motorized vehicles.
A National Forest Trail System Plan Draft was developed in 1993 but was never published.  This comprehensive document identified many of the resources issues, conflict of uses, and the lack of connectivity of the trail system that still exist today.
Although much of the original 1976 route system remains today there have been periodic changes to the system, including closure and decommissioning of routes with unacceptable impacts, rerouting of problem sections, and limited “designed for” new construction of motorized trails.
An additional review of the SLRD trail system was conducted by the Forest Service during implementation of the Travel Management Rule in 2007. A complete inventory of all off-highway vehicle routes on California’s National Forests was recorded between 2006 and 2008 using GPS methodology. Funded by the California Off-Highway Motor Vehicle Recreation Division, the route inventory included all non-system routes such as user created off-highway vehicle trails. These routes were subsequently analyzed for possible addition to the national Forest Transportation System.  Routes with unacceptable impacts to resources were closed to public use. A Motor Vehicle Use Map was published that shows roads, areas, and trails that are open to public motor vehicle use by vehicle class and season of use.  Since the SLRD had a designated system of National Forest roads and trails, no changes were made to the SLRD transportation system during implementation of Travel Management.
The SLRD transportation system also provides essential access to a wide variety of non-motorized recreation including wilderness trailheads (Machesna Wilderness and Santa Lucia Wilderness), hiking trails (Wilson Canyon and Black Mountain trails), mountain biking (Fernandez trail and other forest roads and trails).  The transportation system provides access for hunters who use quads for game retrieval and Forest visitors who come for popular activities such as wildlife viewing, camping, picnicking, and driving for pleasure.
The Rockfront, La Brea, and Figueroa Mountain areas of the Santa Lucia Ranger District also provide an important system of Forest roads and trails designated for OHV use.  These areas are managed with the assistance of volunteer groups from Santa Maria and Northern Santa Barbara County.  Because these areas are geographically separate from the Pozo La Panza area they are not specifically addressed by this plan, however they are no less important and many of the same findings and principles of management apply to these areas. With time, these areas should be included as part of a comprehensive Santa Lucia Ranger District OHV Plan.

PURPOSE OF THE PLAN
The purpose of this plan is to establish the baseline and goals for managing the Pozo / La Panza OHV area. Continued public use and access to the area is dependent on volunteers working together with the Forest Service and fellow users. Effective management that includes resource protection will ensure the area remains available for future generations. This plan will identify areas needing improvement and the groups that have the ability to make changes. It will also address developing management strategies to protect resources, involve partners, and invest in recreational opportunities.

LOCATION
The Pozo / La Panza area is located on the north side of the Santa Lucia Ranger District. This 18,867-acre area has approximately 43 miles of routes. It extends from the Machesna Mountain Wilderness area on the southern end to the Black Mountain Wild Horse Territory to the north. Included in this plan are the Garcia OHV Trail, Hi Mountain Lookout Road, Turkey Flat Staging Area, La Panza and Friis Campgrounds, and Navajo Flat Campground, previously known as Navajo Flat Staging Area, which is currently undergoing improvement.
Visitor Use Statistics
It is estimated that Navajo Flats Campground receives, at a minimum, 5000 and 7500 visits per year.  This is based on traffic counter data collected by the Forest Service. Trail traffic counter data recorded during 2009 revealed that Burnout trail, which originates from the Navajo Flat Campground, received approximately 10,000 trips. Red Hill Road, which provides access to the Navajo Flats Campground, received over 14,000 trips.    14% of “walk in” inquiries at the District Office in Santa Maria were OHV related .
National Forest Visitor Use (NVUM) data was collected in 2009 for the Los Padres National Forest.  Results are attached and can be verified by using the interactive web site found here: http://apps.fs.usda.gov/nrm/nvum/results/A05007.aspx/Round2. The Survey reports approximately 50 vehicles per day at the Turkey Flat Staging Area on the two days surveyed.   Turkey Flat Staging Area is a second staging area in the Pozo / La Panza OHV area.  NVUM survey data is not available for Navajo Flat Campground.
OHV recreation is popular in San Luis Obispo County. San Luis Obispo OHV Registrations (green sticker) totaled 7,027 for a population of 253,600 (California Fuel Tax Study, 2006).   OHV recreation is popular in the Western States. 17.6 % of the population over age 16 has participated in OHV use.  12% of population is 16 or older.   (Cordell et al., 2008.)

NEED UPDATED MAP

PART II – MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

VISION
To provide a place for recreation to co-exist with responsible land management by maintaining an OHV trail system that allows riders to enjoy their experience and challenge themselves while promoting “Tread Lightly” ethics and protecting sensitive resources.

MISSION
Improve cooperation between the Forest Service and OHV users to cultivate alliances for management of the Pozo / La Panza OHV area. Improve OHV trails and facilities while emphasizing safety and resource protection.

EXISTING CONDITION
Many routes on the present system were established through years of mining, range use, utility access and fire line construction that evolved into an OHV trail system. Ridge and fall-line trails follow dozer lines from past fire line construction. Erosion on some trails left scars several feet deep on hillsides requiring rerouting or placing bricks to harden the surface.  A mix of single track trails, roads, and 4X4 routes make it difficult for riders to safely and legally connect to certain trails.

DESIRED CONDITION
The Pozo / La Panza OHV area is a natural appearing landscape that functions as an open space and motorized recreation area that requires advanced skill levels. Healthy watersheds are maintained by managing the OHV system.  The route system provides access to non-motorized recreational uses such as hunting, mountain biking, camping, hiking, horseback riding, nature viewing, recreational mining, target shooting, and the running of hounds. Effective management of the route system minimizes impacts to natural and cultural resources and resolves conflicts.
The management strategy reflected in this plan desires a well maintained system that combines motorized recreation with non-motorized recreation and preserves and protects resources. As to the motorized recreation, it is desired to improve trail connectivity, loop characteristics and sustainable trail designs.

GOALS
Trail Maintenance
Trail maintenance of the off-highway vehicle trails system in the Pozo / La Panza OHV area is presently accomplished through a Memorandum of Understanding between the Forest Service and the Central Coast Motorcycle Association (CCMA).  The CCMA has a large work force of volunteers who commit significant resources toward maintenance of the trail system. The CCMA has recently received state and local grants and has utilized these funds to accomplish many projects on the Los Padres National Forest.  All trail maintenance tasks will follow standards listed on Trail Management Objectives (TMOs) for each trail.  The Standards and Guidelines for Mechanized OHV Trail Work, by Soil Scientist, Roger Poff will be followed when completing trail work.  The levels of maintenance are included in the attached appendix.
Restoration
Restoration is a critical activity that protects sensitive resources such as riparian areas, cultural areas, sensitive habitats, and watersheds.  Restoration will be accomplished on trail sections that have been rerouted and where trespass has occurred on and off the trail system. Restoration of OHV areas can be difficult because of the remote locations and continued use of closed routes.  The keys to effective restoration efforts include: 1. Making the route invisible; 2. effectively barricade the site; 3. Make it obvious that restoration is taking place; 4. Make the site impossible or highly undesirable to ride.
The Red Hill Pipe Fence restoration project was completed in 2012 to protect cultural sites and the endangered species, the Camatta Canyon amole. Continued monitoring is necessary to ensure that sensitive resources are being protected and barriers are working as effective tools in the restoration process.
The Friis Meadow restoration project is in its final year of completion.  Motorized traffic around Friis Campground has reduced vegetation adjacent to the Fernandez Creek. A horse step and gate have been installed to restrict motorized access to the Black Mountain Roadless Area, where unauthorized use still occasionally occurs on the decommissioned Black Widow Mine trail.
An open area north of Turkey Flat Staging Area also referred to as “Turkey Flat II,” will need action taken to prevent trespassing and resource damage from continuing in the area. This has long been a popular staging and dispersed camping area that has recently experienced increased use, abandoned campfires, target shooting, and resource damage. This location is a place where a designated system trail crosses the paved road.  Installing fencing and other measures to control traffic, parking and divert camping to Turkey Flat Staging Area will reduce continued damage and help protect the riparian area.
The narrowing of Red Hill Road is a proposal that will be coordinated with the Ecosystems and Engineering Officer. This road accesses Pozo / La Panza from the north off Highway 58 by users and landowners. An approximately one eighth mile section of the road bed has been widened to nearly 100 feet to its limit established by existing pipe fence and by users attempting to avoid  potholes and ruts. The topography of the area does not allow adequate drainage of the roadbed during the wet season.  Widening of the road has the potential to disturb adjacent Camatta Canyon amole habitat.  Constructing a solid road surface with adequate drainage will provide users and residences with improved access. This project will have the added benefit of providing additional habitat for Camatta Canyon amole.
Sign Plan
Signs on OHV trails follow the engineering guidelines in EM-7100-15—Standards for Forest Service Signs and Posters. Trail and road signs provide a clear and concise guide for users to navigate to trails that accommodate their level of skill.  Common trail names and difficulty levels are used to allow for easy navigation. Mixed used sections on roads identify areas that are open for vehicles and OHVs which state, “Share the Road.” Signs also indicate which roads are limited to highway licensed vehicles only. Temporary signs for closures identify the areas closed for access and explain the reason for the closure. Closure signs should be removed as soon as possible when conditions allow. If any closures are in effect, the forest website will provide additional information for the public to view.
Interpretive and informational signs will be added at staging areas to educate riders are riding regulations and will provide a map of OHV trails in the Pozo / La Panza area. Road and trail junctions shall have stop and/or yield signs to warn riders of on-coming traffic for safe crossing.
Volunteerism/ Partnerships
Volunteers are a key component of any plan to maintain and improve areas on the Forest. Strong partnerships need to be built with user groups to ensure the future of the Forest Developed Recreation programs and OHV trail systems.  The Los Padres National Forest has multiple volunteer agreements with individuals and groups that assist with maintaining areas that may not receive as much attention as needed.  Volunteer groups that presently have volunteer agreements with the District include the CCMA, the Santa Maria Four Wheelers, the SLO Four Wheelers and the Cal Poly Penguins Motorcycle Club.
Education/Interpretation
The Forest has applied for and received funding to promote safe and smart riding and ethical responsibilities of OHV users. This included offering “Orientation Rides” which are part of permitted special use recreation events where booths of educational information is handed out to kids and adults.  Community events, such as fairs, parades, and schools events are attended by Forest Service staff and volunteers. Funding was used to update and print the Motorized Vehicle Opportunity Guide (MVOG), which includes all the OHV trails that are designated to ride, as well as other recreation features in the area. Interpretive signs have also been purchased for Navajo Flat and Turkey Flat Staging Areas which include information about the ecosystem, Tread Lightly and Leave No Trace ethics, as well as an OHV trail map of the area. The “One Less Spark, One Less Wildfire” campaign seeks to educate forest visitors on hazards such as parking in deep grass, dragging chains, and the use of spark arrestors to reduce the number of forest fires. Forest Service staff and volunteers continue to make public contact on the forest to educate as many users as possible of proper riding and their role in keeping this area open for everyone to use.
Wet Weather Management
Trail and road closures occur annually during the rainy season. When ground is wet the soil is soft and impressionable. Ruts are easily developed by tire tracks and repeated vehicle use deepens the ruts. As the soil dries and hardens, the ruts remain and become channels for future rain water runoff, creating erosion.  Another major consideration for seasonal closure is public safety.  Closures are implemented when conditions on Forest roads and trails become hazardous for the public and staff.
A Wet Weather Plan identifies who is responsible for closing areas and the conditions that require closure.  Volunteers are used when feasible to assist with closures, especially during the holiday season when staffing is limited. Volunteers can also assist with soil sampling to determine the amount of precipitation that may adversely affect soil trafficability and make the tread surface susceptible to damage.  Volunteer participation in wet weather closures allows trail users to see the conditions that warrant closures and the damage caused by improper motorized use. Studies are being performed at the Regional Office to determine an improved evidence based methodology for wet weather closures.
Motorized Mixed Use
Motorized mixed use is defined as designation of a NFS road for use by both highway-legal and non-highway-legal motor vehicles.   Mixed use may be allowed following analysis by a qualified Forest engineer and documentation of engineering judgment.
The Regional Office has issued several communications regarding motorized mixed use.  In January, 2005, the Regional Forester requested an opinion from the California Highway Patrol (CHP) as to whether Maintenance Level (ML) 3 roads were considered “Highways” under Section 38001 of the California Vehicle Code and if combined-use regulations (CVC 38026) applied. The response to this letter precipitated a joint meeting in August, 2007, and an additional response from the CHP on December 19, 2007 which indicated that ML 3 Forest roads that are gravel, dirt, or unpaved surface roads that have been operating as mixed use roadways fall under the “roughly graded trails and roads upon which vehicular travel by the public is permitted” under CVC section 38001 and are therefore eligible for mixed-use.
In addition to an engineering analysis changes in these mixed use designations require CHP consultation and NEPA analysis such as an Environmental Assessment. Changes in maintenance level may be made by an administrative decision.
Several Forest roads intersect with OHV trails in the Pozo / La Panza area including Navajo, Fernandez, Black Mountain, Queen Bee, Frasier Canyon, and Red Hill Roads. Navajo Road, a ML 3 road, allows highway-licensed vehicles only to travel between Navajo Bypass and McGinnis Creek trails.  Friis Road is a ML 2 road which allows for OHV travel from the Five Points intersection to the Navajo Bypass trailhead and beyond to Friis Campground and the Fernandez trailhead.
Two locations have been proposed for mixed use. The first, Fernandez Road, between Navajo Flat Staging Area and Benchmark OHV Trail, has been reviewed by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) who concurred and allow for mixed use on this section of road.
The second is Black Mountain Road, a ML 4 paved surface road that serves as a critical connecting route between Howard’s Bypass trail 15E05 and the trail system.  Black Mountain Road is presently ineligible for use by non-highway licensed vehicles. Past proposals to the Regional Forest Engineer for reclassification of Black Mountain Road to allow mixed use have not been approved and will be reintroduced. Trail reroutes surrounding Black Mountain Road were reviewed by Trails Unlimited and it was determined that an alternative route would require trail construction in an area of poor quality soil that could be costly and labor intensive to maintain.

MANAGEMENT CONSTRAINTS AND CONSIDERATIONS

Fire Prevention
Fire prevention in the area is a concern with the hot dry conditions that can exist all year round.  USDA approved spark arrestors are required on all off -highway vehicles used on National Forests year round. Fireworks are also prohibited at all times and in all locations within Los Padres National Forest.
Fire danger rating is a broad scale assessment that describes conditions that reflect the potential, over a large area, for a fire to ignite, spread and requires suppression action; “adjective ratings” are a public information description of the relative severity of the current fire danger situation in a general area. Adjective ratings are generally posted on signs as visitors enter public lands or at District offices and fire stations.  Five color coded levels are used to help the public understand fire potential and help mitigate their actions to prevent human caused wildfires.

•    When the fire danger is “low” (Level 1) it means that fuels do not ignite easily from small embers, but a more intense heat source, such as lightning, may start fires in duff or dry rotten wood. Control of fires is generally easy.
•    When the fire danger is “moderate” (Level II) it means that fires can start from most accidental causes, but the number of fire starts is usually pretty low. Fires are still not likely to become serious and are often easy to control.
•    When the fire danger is “high” (Level III), fires can start easily from most causes and small fuels (such as grasses and needles) will ignite readily. Unattended campfires and brush fires are likely to escape.  Fires can become serious and difficult to control unless they are put out while they are still small.
•    When the fire danger is “very high” (Level IV) or higher, fires will start easily from most causes. The fires will spread rapidly and have a quick increase in intensity, right after ignition. These fires can be difficult to control and will often become much larger and longer-lasting fires. During Level IV or higher fire restrictions wood and charcoal fires are prohibited in all areas of Los Padres National Forest including designated Campfire Use sites; however, the use of portable stoves and lanterns using gas, jellied petroleum or pressurized liquid fuel is allowed within designated Campfire Use Sites. All flammable material must be cleared for a distance of five feet in all directions from camp stoves, a shovel must be available, and a responsible person must be attending the stove at all times when it is in use.
•    When the fire danger is “extreme” (Level V), fires of all types start quickly and burn intensely. All fires are potentially serious and can spread very quickly with intense burning. These fires are very difficult to fight and may become very dangerous and often last for several days.

Target Shooting
Although not prohibited in the area, no safe location has been identified for target shooting within the Pozo / La Panza OHV area. USFS regulations as well as State regulations are enforced at all times.
Most shooters are unaware of the many locations of OHV trails and often shoot into canyons with trails running along the ridge or behind a trail.  The dry conditions also raise the fire restrictions quickly in the area and mandate closures to target shooting early in the year.

Law Enforcement
The availability of Law Enforcement can be difficult over large geographically separated areas. Law enforcement serves a critical function by enforcing laws that apply to public use of federal lands as well as providing first responder emergency services to Forest visitors. Forest Protection Officers (FPOs) compliment Law Enforcement Officers (LEOs) by enhancing enforcement of off-highway vehicle regulations and may issue citations for operation of motor vehicles in prohibited areas, for causing damage to natural and cultural resources, or for violations of fire and shooting restrictions. State and County law enforcement patrol the Pozo / La Panza area as well.
The California Air Resources Board has removed the requirement for separate periods for green and red stickers in the Pozo / La Panza area; however, off-highway vehicle “green sticker” registration is still required. A USDA approved spark arrestor is required at all times on the Los Padres National Forest. The California Motor Vehicle Code (CVC) includes a legal limit on sound produced by off-highway vehicles.  Vehicles manufactured prior to January 1986 have a noise limit of 101 dbA; those manufactured on or after January 1986 have a noise limit of 96 dbA. Qualified personnel such as a Forest Protection Officer (FPO), check for spark arrestors, registration and sound requirements.
California law allows officer to cite the parent or guardian of a child less than 14 years of age for allowing the child to operate an ATV without proper supervision or if the child is unable to reach the controls necessary to operate the vehicle safely. ATV riders under age 18 must have an ATV safety certificate or be supervised by a parent, guardian, or authorized adult with an approved safety certificate.
Fees
The Pozo / La Panza OHV area is considered a Special Permit Area (SPA) and falls within the Adventure Pass Program under the Recreation Enhancement Act (REA) which requires a daily or annual pass to recreate or use the facilities in the area. Funds collected from the program support patrolling and maintenance and replacement of facilities in this recreation area.
When users do not have an Adventure Pass, a Notice of Required Fee is given to the user and an incident report is written. Most personnel working in the area are not qualified to issue a Notice of Required Fee and can only encourage users to make sure they come prepared next time with an Adventure Pass.  The closest location where passes are sold is in Santa Margarita south on Highway 58. It is expected to increase the amount of vendors that sell the Adventure Pass in Santa Margarita for users to be prepared when entering the Forest.
Environmental Regulations
The list of environmental regulations that apply to National Forests is very lengthy and complex. An excellent primer is the Citizens Guide to NEPA published by the Council on Environmental Quality.   The main objective of the NEPA is to protect the habitats of threatened, endangered and sensitive species such as the peregrine falcon, the California condor, the Western pond turtle, red legged frog, and sensitive plants such as the Santa Margarita manzanita, the Camatta Canyon amole, and Palmer’s mariposa lily.  Studies must be done by qualified specialists to ensure that viable populations of plants and animals are not adversely affected by ground disturbing activities on the Forest. Environmental studies must also be conducted to evaluate potential impacts to water quality, air quality, visual impacts, cultural sites and effects on adjacent land owners.  A proper timeline will be developed for all projects to allow for the completion of required environmental studies followed by the required posting of public notice, public comment periods, announcement of a decision, and resolution of protests prior to conducting ground disturbing activities.
NEPA
As mentioned in the previous section, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process is required for all federal projects. Routine maintenance (level 1 and 2) usually falls into the lowest required NEPA category of Categorical Exclusion. New construction and reroutes fall into level 3 maintenance and require higher levels of NEPA actions such as an Environmental Assessment (EA) or an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).   The Los Padres National Forest will follow the Forest Land and Resource Management Plan to guide future projects.
Grants
The California State Parks Grants and Cooperative Agreements Program offers grants from funds collected through OHV registration (green stickers). Grants support the planning, acquisition, development, maintenance, administration, operation, law enforcement, restoration, and conservation of trails, trailheads, areas, and other facilities associated with the use of OHVs and programs involving OHV safety or education. To be eligible for grant funding applicants must maintain a habitat management program, an environmental monitoring program with annual reporting requirements and must adhere to soil conservation standards.
The Recreational Trails Program (RTP) provides funds to the States to develop and maintain recreational trails and trail-related facilities for both non-motorized and motorized recreational trail uses. The RTP is an assistance program of the Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The RTP funds come from the Federal Highway Trust Fund and represent a portion of the motor fuel excise tax collected from OHV fuel use.
The Recreation Enhancement Act (REA) program offers internal grant applications for forest that have projects within the Adventure Pass areas related to ecological restoration. The forest has been successful in the past at acquiring funding to perform trail work in Pozo / La Panza where erosion issues needed to be resolved.
The forest has also been successful in applying for and receiving grant funding for fire restoration projects in areas were fires have damaged trails, recreation facilities, and watersheds. It is very important that trail surveys and monitoring are completed so those documents can be provided when requested after a wildfire

PART III – IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

TRAIL SYSTEM PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
Forest Service staff will provide guidance to implement the management strategy of this plan.  Staff should have a presence in the forest to ensure the plan is being followed through and opportunities to apply for additional funding is requested when available. Personnel accomplish annual reporting of trail conditions, monitoring of sensitive areas and training on government owned equipment.
Partnerships with user groups will promote the feeling of ownership for those who work and ride the trail system.  Outreach to new riders, recruitment of veteran riders and reunion of past riders will help grow organizations and improve the knowledge base.
Environmental consciousness does not mean a roadblock to progress but a calculated, unbiased view of what is best for the forest. The NEPA process is the way of documenting that all steps have been completed. Education in the process can benefit all concerned parties and shared knowledge and workload can make the system easier for all.
The following list shows the trails located in the Pozo / La Panza OHV area along with facilitates associate with the recreation area.
TRAIL SYSTEM
The following is a list of the trails with difficulty grading, use designation, and a brief description of the trail location and use.

TRAIL NAME    TRAIL DIFFICULTY    TRAIL LENGTH    TRAIL DESCRIPTION
POWERLINE    Easy- for all trail vehicle types    2 Miles    Starting at the Turkey Flat Staging Area, this trail follows a sandy river bed and La Canada for the first mile. The last section climbs gradually up to an intersection with the Howard’s Bypass, a motorcycle trail.
HOWARD’S BYPASS    Most Difficult- for motorcycles    3 Miles    This trail connects with the Powerline route and Black Mountain Road. This trail is designed for motorcycles only. It is narrow and steep and should be ridden by intermediate to advanced riders. The trail dead-ends at the Black Mountain Road for all riders, with the exception of street legal motorcycles. All OHV licensed motorcycles are prohibited on Black Mountain Road.
LA CANADA    Easy- for all trail vehicle types    0.7 Miles    This creek bottom trail is a pleasurable ride located in a small canyon and is relatively flat. It connects Turkey Flat and Powerline trail to Turkey Flat II and Tower trail.
TOWER    More Difficult to Most Difficult- for trail vehicles 50”or less in width    2 Miles    This trail begins at Turkey Flat II, parallels Navajo Road and intersects with the Las Chiches trail. The trail is suited for intermediate to advanced riders and provides the rider with some challenging sections. Riders must use this trail, since OHV green sticker licensed vehicles are prohibited on this section of Navajo Road.
LAS CHICHES    More Difficult to Most Difficult- one section for motorcycles only and most of the trail for all trail vehicle types    6.0 Miles    From the intersection of Five Points, the first section is open to all trail vehicle types, which has several steep sections that are best suited for intermediate to advanced riders. This route follows ridge tops and provides the rider with some outstanding vistas of the valleys below. The last mile which connects to Fernandez Road is open for motorcycle only and ties in with the Burnout trail.
LAS CHICHES CUTOFF    Easy to More difficult – for all trail vehicle types    0.5 Miles    This is a connector trail from Pozo Summit Road at the intersection with Pine Mountain route where the trail begins at an easy level to more difficult. It connects to the Las Chiches trail.
PINE MOUNTAIN    More Difficult to Most Difficult- for all trail vehicle types    7 Miles    This trail is open to all OHV riders, but is best suited for the intermediate and advanced skill levels. The trail borders the Machesna Wilderness and contains one black diamond section called the Stair Steps. The route offers some outstanding vistas of the valley below and the distant Machesna Mountain Wilderness.
QUEEN BEE    More Difficult- for trail vehicles 50”or less in width    1.5 Miles    This trail begins and ends at Queen Bee Road and is best suited for intermediate riders.
BURNOUT    More Difficult to Most Difficult- for motorcycles    10 Miles    This lengthy trail offers a wide variety of trail experience for the intermediate and advanced rider. It traverses over ridge tops with nice vistas as well as oak and grass covered valleys. It also connects with Mare Springs motorcycle trail, La Panza Bypass, Red Hill Road, and Fernandez Road. Navajo Flat Staging Area can be accessed across this trail where restrooms and picnic tables are available.  Only street legal vehicles are allowed on Red Hill, Fernandez and Navajo Roads.
LA PANZA BYPASS    More Difficult- for trail vehicles 50”or less in width    1.5 Miles    This trail is an easy ride for intermediate and advanced riders and goes from La Panza Summit to the Burnout trail.
BENCHMARK    Easy- for all trail vehicle types    1 Mile    This trail is a level easy-going route. It dead-ends for 4x4s where it intersects with the Mare Springs and Burnout trails.
QUAIL    Easy- for all trail vehicle types    1 Miles    Quail Road can only be accessed from Fernandez Road. Only street legal vehicles can access this route. This short route begins off Fernandez Road and dead-ends at a power line tower.
NAVAJO BYPASS    More Difficult- for motorcycles    1.5 Miles    Navajo Bypass starts at Friis Road and ends at Navajo Road. This trail is best suited for intermediate riders due to two steep brick sections in the middle of the trail. Since this trail ends on Navajo Road, the section of the road that connects to the McGinnis Creek trail is legal for all motorcycles and ATVs. The remainder of the Navajo Road is for street legal vehicles only.
McGINNIS CREEK    Easy- for trail vehicles 50”or less in width    1.2 Mile    This trail runs parallel to the creek and is level making it ideal for beginners. This trail can be accessed through Navajo Flat Staging Area where picnic tables and restrooms are available. Since this trail ends on Navajo Road, the section of the road that connects to Navajo Bypass trail is legal for all motorcycles and ATVs. The remainder of the Navajo Road is for street legal vehicles only.
GARCIA RIDGE    More Difficult to Most Difficult- for all trail vehicle types    4 Miles    This ridge top route starts at Hi Mountain Road and dead ends at the Garcia Wilderness boundary. This intermediate route is open to all OHV riders.
MARE SPRINGS    Most Difficult- for motorcycles    3.5 Miles    This is an excellent trail for the intermediate to advanced rider. The trail connects to the Burnout trail on both ends and provides for a challenging and scenic ride.
HI MOUNTAIN LOOKOUT    Easy- for all trail vehicle types          This route starts at Hi Mountain Road and ends at the Santa Lucia Wilderness. Just one mile up the Road is Hi Mountain Campground.  Continuing up the route brings you to a vista with access to Hi Mountain Lookout.  The route continues across the ridge past Little Falls Trailhead and accessing Rinconada and Big Falls trails.

TRAIL SYSTEM FACILITIES
RECREATION FACILITY    FACILITY DESCRIPTION

TURKEY FLAT STAGING AREA
This area is on Navajo Road, a quarter of a mile off Parkhill Road.  There is one bathroom and three picnic tables in a flat area under large oak trees for shade. Powerline and La Canada trails leave from the northwest edge of the area and split beyond the wide sandy stretch of trail. There is a small warm-up/kids track that can be entered from just beyond the bathroom building.
TURKEY FLAT II
This area is where Navajo Road, La Canada and Tower trail meet. This area is used as a dispersed recreation site where it is exposed to vandalism, trespassing, target shooting, and illegal fires and requires restoration to prevent further resource damage.
NAVAJO FLAT CAMPGROUND
This campground offers a staging area for trails, provides six campsites, five day use sites with shade structures, and a beginner’s riding area for warming up. This site also provides a trail throughway where McGinnis Creek connects to Burnout is just across the road to the east on Fernandez Road. One vault bathroom toilet is present as well as an interpretive sign that informs users of recreation opportunities in the Pozo / La Panza OHV area.
FRIIS CAMPGROUND
Located at the end of Friis Road is Friis Campground, which offers three campsites with picnic tables and fire rings shaded by oak trees. This quiet spot at the end of the road overlooks a meadow and provides access to the Fernandez trail for hikers and horses.
LA PANZA CAMGROUND
This large campground is located along Fernandez Road near the eastern edge of the OHV area. With seven campsites and four bathrooms, this campground can accommodate larger groups that seek access to the forest.
HI MOUNTAIN CAMPGROUND
Located 4 miles south of the Pozo Fire Station and one mile up Hi Mountain Lookout Road is a paved loop with several campsites under large oak trees. A bathroom in centered in the campground.
The following is a list of the trails with difficulty grading, use designation, and a brief description of the trail location and use.

PLANNED PROJECTS
A list of projects in the Pozo / La Panza area has been developed to track a program of work of recreation projects on the Santa Lucia Ranger District.  This plan will discuss those that are OHV related and are planned for the next five years.
Proposed Projects    2014    2015    2016    2017    2018
Navajo Flat Staging Area Campground Construction    Construction to be completed in January 2014.
Friis Campground Restoration    Complete horse step and control noxious weeds.    Control Noxious Weeds
Las Chiches OHV Trail Re-establishment    Complete trail construction and fencing.
OHV Toilet Replacement
Complete NEPA and apply for OHV grants to purchase SST toilet buildings and at Hi Mountain, La Panza, Miranda Pines, and Brookshire Campgrounds. Hi Mountain Lookout toilet will serve as a match.     Design and contract. Purchase and install SST toilet buildings at La Panza, Hi Mountain, Miranda Pines, and Brookshire Campgrounds and Hi Mountain Lookout.
Pozo / La Panza Trail Reroutes and Restoration    Apply for an OHV grant to determine a sustainable trail system by reroutes segments of trails.  Also analyze a mixed use section between Benchmark and Navajo Flat Campground. The following trails will be analyzed: Howard’s Bypass, Tower Trail, Las Chiches, Navajo Bypass, Benchmark, Mare Springs, La Panza Bypass, Las Chiches Cutoff , and Queen Bee Trails.    Begin and complete NEPA.     Complete design and contract. Apply for an OHV grant to begin construction of reroutes and restoration of old trails.    Begin construction on OHV reroutes and restore old trails- phase 1.    Begin construction on OHV reroutes and restore old trails- phase 2.
Turkey Flat Staging Area Site Design    Seek a sustainable staging area/campground at Turkey Flat Staging Area.    Apply for a grant to begin NEPA.     NEPA / Design of staging area. Apply for construction grant.     Contract implementation.    Begin construction.
Annual Trail and Facility Maintenance    Apply for annual trail maintenance tasks and facility repairs.    Apply for annual trail maintenance tasks and facility repairs.    Apply for annual trail maintenance tasks and facility repairs.    Apply for annual trail maintenance tasks and facility repairs.    Apply for annual trail maintenance tasks and facility repairs.
Law Enforcement Patrolling    Apply for funding of FPOs to patrol on high use weekends and holiday.    Apply for funding of FPOs to patrol on high use weekends and holiday.    Apply for funding of FPOs to patrol on high use weekends and holiday.    Apply for funding of FPOs to patrol on high use weekends and holiday.    Apply for funding of FPOs to patrol on high use weekends and holiday.

PART IV – MONITORING PLAN

TRAIL MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES
The Trail Management Objective (TMO) for each trail has design parameters that have been approved by the District Ranger. The TMO assigns the designated use, location, trail width, and frequency of maintenance.  The TMO is the basis for all work that will be done on a trail.

TRAIL ASSESSMENT AND CONDITION SURVEY
Trail Assessment and Condition Survey (TRACS) is an organized approach for collecting and updating field data entered into INFRA-Trails on trail conditions and the work needed to meet Forest standards. A TRACS survey consists of three basic components: Inventory, Assessment, and Prescription. By methodically incorporating inventory, assessment, and trail prescription in each survey, TRACS surveyors leave the field with an accurate, useful, and consistently collected set of data that can be used for a wide variety of purposes. By incorporating a common set of terminology, business rules, data fields, and standard trail specifications and drawings, TRACS and INFRA Trail databases help maximize efficiency and consistency in trails data management

HABITAT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
A Habitat Management Program (HMP) is required for applicants to maintain eligibility for the California State Parks OHV grant system. All grant projects involving ground disturbing activities are subject to HMP requirements. If recreation activities pose no risk factors to special-status species and/or sensitive habitats completion of minimal documentation, HMP Part 1, is required.  If risks to special-status species and/or sensitive habitats posed by recreation activities cannot be determined, more complete documentation, including HMP Parts 1 and 2, must be submitted.
HMP Part 2 has several sections.  The first is a Summary of Changes that describes any changes made from the last HMP submitted. Section 2 is a table of all species that fall into 17 Special Status Species categories with their habitat and the time they were last seen in the area. HMP Section 3 is composed of maps of the project area with the locations of all species identified that could be affected. Section 4 is the management / monitoring program requirement for each species. Section 5 is documentation of the past years monitoring including biological assessments and stream crossing surveys to monitor erosion and habitat where water crosses trails.

APPENDIX A
Los Padres National Forest
OHV Trails Programmatic Biological Assessment 2012 (Edited)

IV. DESCRIPTION OF THE ON-GOING ACTIVITY

The on-going activity addressed in this Biological Assessment (BA) includes both the use and maintenance of designated OHV routes within the LPNF OHV Program. Unauthorized OHV use outside of the designated trail system is not included as it is not part of the OHV Program. However, unauthorized use (“trespass” or off-trail travel) is recognized as an associated impact and discussed.

Some OHV routes are jointly part of the Forest Roads Program, and the maintenance of these routes is performed by the Forest Service Roads Program. These routes are not included in the BA as they are covered under the Programmatic Biological Assessment for Federally Listed Wildlife Species That May Be Affected by the Transportation Facilities Maintenance and Use Program (2012 – 2022) on the Los Padres National Forest (in preparation).

The Santa Lucia Ranger District has 102 miles of designated roads and trails within the program, which fall within four areas: Pozo / La Panza, Rockfront, Buckhorn Ridge, and Catway. There are two staging areas within the Pozo / La Panza OHV area that offer campsites, restrooms, picnic tables, and fire rings.

The 2009 National Visitor Use Monitoring survey determined that approximately 106,000 visitors use the OHV system on the forest each year. This total includes specific areas of heavy use such as the Pozo / La Panza area, which receives 25 to 35 OHV users per day on weekends. In addition to dispersed OHV use, private OHV groups are permitted to use the designated OHV areas to host special events. In the Pozo / La Panza area, at least four motorized and one non-motorized trail special use events are held each year. These events draw between 100 to 350 participants, plus support staff, 100+ spectators, families and Forest Service staff. Nearby designated campgrounds, undesignated camping areas, and staging areas receive a substantially higher rate of use for multiple days during each event. Portable toilets are brought in for most of the events. Follow-up work is conducted by the groups after the events, and includes trail repairs, site cleanup, and trash removal.

Specifications for maintenance activities conducted within the Forest Service Trail System are described in USDA Forest Service (1996) Standard Specifications for Construction and Maintenance of Trails, EM-7720-103. Maintenance conducted on OHV routes is similar to work conducted on hiking trails with some differences, such as a higher incidence of using mechanized trail equipment and the installation of short sections of concrete pavers as erosion control material. OHV route maintenance is categorized into three separate levels based upon the extent of ground and vegetation disturbance.

Levels 1 and 2 are considered routine maintenance, and consist of activities within the existing trail way and clearing limit, which do not expand the route outside its current location. Level 3 maintenance is defined as reconstructing the trail way (as described in Section 915, EM-7720-103), and includes working outside the trail way in previously undisturbed areas. Level 3 work may include a partial trail reroute, or when excavation of fill (borrow) material is needed from outside the trail way in order to fill ruts or washouts within the trail way. Levels 1 and 2 OHV route maintenance are conducted on an on-going basis are included within this programmatic BA. Separate BA/BEs are prepared by the LPNF for each Level 3 maintenance project; therefore, Level 3 maintenance activities are not included within this programmatic BA.
• The trail way is defined in Section 902 of EM-7720-103 as “the portion of the trail within the limits of the excavation and embankment”.
• The trail tread is defined in Section 902 of EM-7720-103 as “the surface portion of the trail upon which traffic moves”.
• Clearing limits for trimming vegetation are defined in Section 911.02 of EM-7720-103, and include provisions for vertical clearance, upslope and down slope limits based upon the steepness of slope, and are generally areas within 1 foot of the fill and back-slope catch points.

Level 1 Trail Maintenance

Level 1 is considered Light Trail Maintenance, and is defined as “no disturbance to the existing trail surface”. This work is generally conducted by hand crews, but small mechanized equipment may be used. It consists of activities such as:
• Slide and slough removal;
• Clearing and grubbing;
• Brushing and logging out; and,
• Clearing debris from water bars.
These activities are conducted within the established trail way and clearing limits as defined in the trail guide. Work consists of clearing, grubbing, trimming, removing, and treating trees, logs, limbs, branches, and other vegetation within the clearing limits. Work can be performed along all sections of trails as long as the work does not result in any new ground disturbance outside the established trail way. Slough, berm and slide material removed from the trail way can be used as fill for gully and rill repair within the trail bed.

Level 2 Trail and Staging Area/Trailhead Maintenance

This is considered Tread Maintenance, and is defined as “the re-establishment of the trail way within previously established routes” (Earthwork, Section 910, 911 and 912 of EM-77-103). Routine maintenance of OHV staging areas and trailheads is also included. Ground-disturbing activities are limited to the existing trail way. Work is performed by hand crews or mechanized equipment. Hand crews are used when possible in areas adjacent to known cultural or Threatened, Endangered, Protected, Critical, Sensitive (TEPCS) species resources that may be impacted. Use of mechanized equipment is also limited to the time period having adequate soil moisture, which is needed to provide proper compaction of soils after blading and to minimize dust. All equipment operators are certified as trail operators in accordance with Forest Service policy.
Level 2 work includes:
• Construction and repair of water bars (referred to as Excavation and Embankment Section 912 of EM-7720-103);
• Repair of shallow creek fords and rock retaining walls;
• Cleaning draining dips and other drainage structures;
• Shaping trail tread, trail bed repair, and filling gullies and rills in the trail bed with minimal barrow from the trail way;
• Shaping berms and drainage dips, and repair of whoops and/or stutter bumps;
• Removal of obstacles/debris from the trail tread;
• Installation of pavers or other tread armoring material to reduce erosion of the trail tread;
• Embankment work that may consist of extending the trail way into the existing back-slope where necessary to achieve a full bench trail bed; and
• Maintenance performed on OHV staging areas and trailheads, including grading of entry roads and parking areas, fence and barrier repair, and sign replacement.

Motorized Trail Design Standards – 2008 Forest Service Handbook- FSH 2309.18 – TRAILS MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK
CHAPTER 20 – TRAIL DEVELOPMENT 23.2 – STANDARD TERRA TRAILS – MOTORIZED
23.21 – MOTORCYCLE DESIGN PARAMETERS
23.21 – Exhibit 01
MOTORCYCLE DESIGN PARAMETERS

Design Parameters are technical guidelines for the survey, design, construction, maintenance, and assessment of National Forest System trails, based on their Designed Use and Trail Class and consistent with their management intent1.  Local deviations from any Design Parameter may be established based on trail-specific conditions, topography, or other factors, provided that the deviations are consistent with the general intent of the applicable Trail Class.

Designed Use
MOTORCYCLE    Trail Class 1    Trail Class 2    Trail Class 3    Trail Class 4    Trail Class 5
Design
Tread Width
Single Lane    Typically not designed or actively managed for motorcycles, although use may be allowed    8” –  24”
18” –  36”    24”  –  48”    Typically not designed or actively managed for motorcycles, although use may be allowed
Double Lane        48”
48 ” –  60”    60” – 72”
Structures
(Minimum Width)        36”    48”    48”
Design Surface2    Type        Native, with limited grading
May be continuously rough
Sections of soft or unstable tread on grades < 5% may be common and continuous
Native, with some on-site borrow or imported material where needed for stabilization and occasional grading
Intermittently rough
Sections of soft or unstable tread on grades < 5% may be present    Native, with imported materials for tread stabilization likely and routine grading
Minor roughness
Sections of soft tread not common

Protrusions        ≤ 6”
May be common and continuous    ≤ 3”
May be common, but not continuous    ≤ 3”
Uncommon and not continuous
Obstacles
(Maximum Height)        18”
May be common or placed for increased challenge    12”
Common and left for increased challenge
3”
Uncommon

Designed Use
MOTORCYCLE    Trail Class 1    Trail Class 2    Trail Class 3    Trail Class 4    Trail Class 5
Design
Grade 2    Target Grade        10% – 25%
5% – 20%    3% – 10%
Short Pitch Maximum
40%    25%    15%
Maximum Pitch Density        20% – 40% of trail
15% – 30% of trail    10% – 20% of trail
Design
Cross Slope    Target Cross Slope        5% – 10%
5% – 8%    3% –  5%
Maximum Cross Slope        15%
10%    10%
Design Clearing    Height        6’ – 7’
6’ – 8’    8’ – 10’
Width
(On steep side hills, increase clearing on uphill side by 6” – 12”)        36” – 48”
Some light vegetation may encroach into clearing area    48” –  60”
60” – 72”

Shoulder Clearance        6” – 12”
12” – 18”    12” – 24”
Design Turn    Radius        3’ – 4’
4’ – 6’    5’ – 8’
1   For definitions of Design Parameter attributes (e.g., Design Tread Width and Short Pitch Maximum), see FSH 2309.18, section 05.
2   The determination of the trail-specific Design Grades, Design Surface, and other Design Parameters should be based upon soils, hydrological conditions, use levels, erosion potential, and other factors contributing to surface stability and overall trail sustainability.
Application considerations for Motorcycle Design Parameters:
1.  NFS trails that allow motorcycle use must be designated for that vehicle class pursuant to 36 CFR 212.51 and displayed on a motor vehicle use map (FSM 7703.1).
2.  For NFS trails that have been designated for motorcycle use and that have a Designed Use of Motorcycle, apply the Motorcycle Design Parameters and the following guidance.
a. A variety of distances and recreation experiences may be provided by designing cutoffs for less experienced riders within a system of loop trails.  An experienced rider can ride approximately 50 miles in an average day.  Some riders can cover over 100 miles in a day.
b. Trail alignment should exhibit decreasing randomness between Trail Class 2 and Trail Class 4.
c. Favor drainage dips over water bars.
d. On trails in Trail Class 4, the alignment is generally moderate, with no sharp curves combined with steep grades.  Novice riders may be subjected to sharp curves, but generally not in combination with rough surfaces or steep grades (see sec. 23.21, ex. 01).
e. Favor climbing turns over switchbacks, within the applicable Design Parameter grade tolerances, as deemed appropriate, considering the use and direction of travel.  Modify the level of challenge of a curve by increasing or decreasing its turning radius.
f. For trails in Trail Class 4, locate turns on level ground or on slopes of less than
6 percent.  On trails designed for novice and intermediate riders, consider providing a 4-to-6-foot barrier on the downhill side of a switchback.
g. The speed of a motorcycle entering a turn varies depending on the radius of the turn.  A trail designer can slow the speed of a motorcycle entering a turn by decreasing its turning radius.  A trail designer may increase the length of a trail in a limited area by increasing the number of turns.
h. Hardening of switchbacks and climbing turns in sensitive soils is recommended.  Suggested hardening materials include concrete blocks, soil, and cement.
I.  For minimum bridge widths and railing heights, refer to FSH 7709.56b, section 7.69, exhibit 01, Trail Bridge Design Criteria.  Bridges should have a straight approach and should not change directions.  Special decking may be necessary to accommodate wheeled vehicles.
j. To minimize confusion, consider locating trail junctions so that no more than two trails intersect at one point.

23.22 – ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLE (ATV) DESIGN PARAMETERS
The next page displays the All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Design Parameters, followed by considerations regarding their application.3.22 – Exhibit 01
ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLE DESIGN PARAMETERS

Design Parameters are technical guidelines for the survey, design, construction, maintenance, and assessment of National Forest System trails, based on their Designed Use and Trail Class and consistent with their management intent1.  Local deviations from any Design Parameter may be established based on trail-specific conditions, topography, or other factors, provided that the deviations are consistent with the general intent of the applicable Trail Class.

Designed Use
ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLE    Trail Class 1    Trail Class 2    Trail Class 3    Trail Class 4    Trail Class 5
Design
Tread Width
Single Lane    Typically not designed or actively managed for ATVs, although use may be allowed    48” – 60”
60”    60” – 72”    Typically not designed or actively managed for ATVs, although use may be allowed
Double Lane        96”
96” – 108”    96” – 120”
Structures
(Minimum Width)        60”    60”    60”
Design Surface2    Type        Native, with limited grading
May be continuously rough
Sections of soft or unstable tread on grades < 5% may be common and continuous
Native, with some on-site borrow or imported material where needed for stabilization and occasional grading
Intermittently rough
Sections of soft or unstable tread on grades < 5% may be present    Native, with imported materials for tread stabilization likely and routine grading
Minor roughness
Sections of soft tread uncommon

Protrusions        ≤ 6”
May be common and continuous    ≤ 3”
May be common, but not continuous    ≤ 3”
Uncommon and not continuous
Obstacles
(Maximum Height)        12”
May be common or placed for increased challenge    6”
May be common and left for increased challenge    3”
Uncommon

23.22 – Exhibit 01–Continued

Designed Use
ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLE    Trail Class 1    Trail Class 2    Trail Class 3    Trail Class 4    Trail Class 5
Design
Grade 2    Target Grade        10% – 25%
5% – 15%    3% – 10%
Short Pitch Maximum
35%    25%    15%
Maximum Pitch Density        20% – 40% of trail
15% – 30% of trail
10% – 20% of trail

Design
Cross Slope    Target Cross Slope        5% – 10%
3% – 8%    3% – 5%
Maximum Cross Slope        15%
10%    8%
Design Clearing    Height         6’ – 7’
6’ – 8’    8’ – 10’
Width
(On steep side hills, increase clearing on uphill side by 6” – 12”)        60”
Some light vegetation may encroach into clearing area    60” – 72”
72” – 96”

Shoulder Clearance        0” – 6”
6” – 12”    12” – 18”
Design Turn    Radius
6’ – 8’    8’ – 10’    8’ – 12’

1   For definitions of Design Parameter attributes (e.g., Design Tread Width and Short Pitch Maximum), see FSH 2309.18, section 05.
2   The determination of the trail-specific Design Grade, Design Surface, and other Design Parameters should be based upon soils, hydrological conditions, use levels, erosion potential, and other factors contributing to surface stability and overall sustainability of the trail.
Application considerations for All-Terrain Vehicle Design Parameters:
1.  NFS trails that allow ATV use must be designated for that vehicle class pursuant to
36 CFR 212.51 and displayed on a motor vehicle use map (FSM 7703.1).
2.  For NFS trails designated for ATV use and that have a Designed Use of ATV, apply the ATV Design Parameters and the following guidance.
a. A variety of distances and recreation experiences may be provided by designing cutoffs for less experienced riders within a system of loop trails.
b. Trail alignment should exhibit decreasing randomness between Trail Class 2 and Trail Class 4.
c. Include frequent elevation changes and turns appropriate for each skill level.  These design features can be incorporated as appropriate to slow vehicle speeds, increase safety, and provide more riding time per mile (see sec. 23.22, ex. 01).
d. Favor drainage dips over water bars.
e. Favor climbing turns over switchbacks, within the applicable Design Parameter grade tolerances, as deemed appropriate, considering the use and direction of travel.  Modify the level of challenge of a curve by increasing or decreasing its turning radius.
f. On trails in Trail Class 4, the alignment generally should be moderate, with no sharp curves combined with steep grades.  Novice riders may be subjected to sharp curves, but generally not in combination with rough surfaces or steep grades.  If possible, incorporate climbing turns with a wide radius for ascending hills.  Use switchbacks on steep slopes only for more challenging trails.
g. Hardening of switchbacks and climbing turns in areas with sensitive soils is recommended.  Suggested hardening materials include concrete blocks, soil, and cement.
h. For minimum bridge widths and railing heights, refer to FSH 7709.56b, section 7.69, exhibit 01, Trail Bridge Design Criteria.  Bridges should have a straight approach and should not change directions.  Special decking may be necessary to accommodate wheeled vehicles.
I.  To minimize confusion, consider locating trail junctions so that no more than two trails intersect at one point.

23.23 – DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE VEHICLES GREATER THAN 50 INCHES IN WIDTH
23.23 – Exhibit 01

DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE VEHICLES
GREATER THAN 50 INCHES IN WIDTH

Design Parameters are technical guidelines for the survey, design, construction, maintenance, and assessment of National Forest System trails, based on their Designed Use and Trail Class and consistent with their management intent1.  Local deviations from any Design Parameter may be established based on trail-specific conditions, topography, or other factors, provided that the deviations are consistent with the general intent of the applicable Trail Class.

Designed Use
FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE VEHICLE > 50″    Trail Class 1    Trail Class 2    Trail Class 3    Trail Class 4    Trail Class 5
Design
Tread Width         Single Lane    Typically not designed or actively managed for 4WD Vehicles > 50”, although use may be allowed    72” – 84”
72” – 96”    96” – 120”    Typically not designed or actively managed for 4WD Vehicles > 50”, although use may be allowed
Double Lane        16’
16’    16’
Structures
(Minimum Width)        96”    96”    96”
Design Surface2    Type        Native, with limited grading
May be continuously rough
Sections of soft or unstable tread on grades < 5% may be common and continuous    Native, with some on-site borrow or imported material where needed for stabilization and occasional grading
Intermittently rough
Sections of soft or unstable tread on grades < 5% may be present    Native, with imported materials for tread stabilization likely and  routine grading
Minor roughness
Sections of soft tread uncommon
Protrusions        ≤ 12”
May be common and continuous    ≤ 8”
May be common and continuous    ≤ 4”
May be common and continuous
Obstacles
(Maximum Height)        36”
May be common or placed for increased challenge    24”
Common and left for increased challenge    12”
Uncommon

23.23 – Exhibit 01–Continued

Designed Use
FOUR WHEEL DRIVE VEHICLE < 50″    Trail Class 1    Trail Class 2    Trail Class 3    Trail Class 4    Trail Class 5
Design
Grade2    Target Grade        10% – 21%
5% – 18%    5% – 12%
Short Pitch Maximum
25%    20%    15%
Maximum Pitch Density        20% – 30% of trail
10% – 20% of trail    5% – 10% of trail
Design
Cross Slope    Target Cross Slope        8% – 15%
5% – 12%    5% – 8%
Maximum Cross Slope        15%
12%    8%
Design Clearing    Height         6’ – 8’
6’ – 8’    8’ – 10’
Width        72” – 84”
Some light vegetation may encroach into clearing area    72” – 96”
96” – 144”
Shoulder Clearance        0” – 6”
6” – 12”    12” – 18”
Design Turn    Radius        10’ – 15’    15’ – 20’    20’ – 30’
1   For definitions of Design Parameter attributes (e.g., Design Tread Width and Short Pitch Maximum), see FSH 2309.18, section 05.
2   The determination of the trail-specific Design Grade, Design Surface, and other Design Parameters should be based upon soils, hydrological conditions, use levels, erosion potential, and other factors contributing to surface stability and overall sustainability of the trail.

Application considerations for Four-Wheel Drive Vehicles > 50” In Width Design Parameters:

1.  NFS trails that allow four-wheel drive vehicle use must be designated for that vehicle class pursuant to 36 CFR 212.51 and displayed on a motor vehicle use map (FSM 7703.1).

2.  For NFS trails designated for four-wheel drive vehicles over 50 inches in width and that have a Designed Use for that type of vehicle, apply the appropriate Design Parameters and the guidance below, as applicable.

a. The level of challenge provided by a trail increases with the size of the vehicle.  For example, a trail that is challenging for a vehicle with a short wheelbase (less than 100 inches) is likely to be even more challenging for a vehicle with a long wheelbase (greater than 100 inches).

b. Trails designed for four-wheel drive vehicles greater than 50 inches in width have varying degrees of horizontal and vertical alignments, with safe tread for an average speed of 2 to 4 miles per hour.

c. A variety of distances and recreation experiences may be provided for less experienced riders by designing cutoffs within a system of loop trails.

d. Favor drainage dips over water bars.

e. Favor climbing turns over switchbacks, within the applicable Design Parameter grade tolerances, as deemed appropriate, considering the use and direction of travel.  Modify the level of challenge of a curve by increasing or decreasing its turning radius.

f.  Alignment on trails with grades of 4 percent or less should provide 5 lock-to-lock turns (five changes of direction of the steering wheel, from far right to far left) in the first 150 feet of the trail to restrict use of the trail to smaller vehicles.  The rest of the trail should have 2 to 5 lock-to-lock turns, depending on vegetation, topography, and planned challenge level (see sec. 23.23, ex. 01).

g.  Trails with grades of 4 to 10 percent should have wider turning radii and dips and bumps, as topography allows.  Depending on topography, locate 10 percent or more of the trail on a relatively straight alignment, with a maximum side slope of 30 percent.

APPENDIX B

Trail Assessment and Condition Survey (TRACS)

APPENDIX C
2012/13 Santa Lucia Ranger District Wet Weather Road Closure Plan

Wet weather gates are closed in order to protect Level 2 roads and trails from rut damage and resource damage or destruction in the Los Padres National Forest.

A.    Who is in Charge:
The overall program manager for the District gate closure plan is Tom Plymale. The Duty Officer will take responsibility for the implementation of the plan as needed and coordinate with Recreation when doing so.  Each area has a Fire Prevention Technician and a Recreation Technician assigned to it – these are the Patrollers that are assigned leadership roles for closing and opening the gates.  They will be communicating with local area resources to coordinate these efforts.  If one of the Patrols are not here or have other commitments, they are responsible to make sure someone else can cover for them to insure the closure take place following the proper procedure.  The local Fire Stations and District Employees are expected to help when asked and available.

Santa Lucia Ranger District Wet Weather Road Closures
Road Closure Priority (high to low)    Responsible Patrollers
Arroyo Grande-Pozo Rd./Hi Mountain Area     Pozo Station & Lloyd McWilliams
La Brea/Colson    Curt Schwarm & Helen Tarbet
Rockfront    Curt Schwarm & Helen Tarbet
Pozo Area    Pozo Station & Lloyd McWilliams
Figueroa    Figueroa Station & Joe Duran/Helen Tarbet
West Cuesta    Pozo Station & Lloyd McWilliams

When gate closures are necessary, many aspects are considered: the severity of the upcoming storm event and amount of previous rainfall, the availability of staff to close gates, time associated with surveying the area for visitors and informing them of the closure, and time associated with re-opening gates.  Due to the potential for staffing or work force availability issues associated with the wet weather gate closures, leaders may consider longer closures periods during times of potential inclement weather. Communication is key to making sure:

1.    The duty officers and Patrollers will work together to keep each other aware of storm conditions, the amount of rain predicted, the amount of rain that has fallen, local road conditions, and know who is going to do what to get the roads closed.

2.    Patrollers keep the front desk and the Duty Officer informed of conditions requiring closing and prior to re-opening the gates.

3.    Patrollers communicate schedules in order to ensure coverage for their closure areas.

B.    Problems and solutions related to gate closures:

1.    Inconsistent application of closures by staff.  Have a yearly meeting before November to coordinate!
2.     Public notifications.  Issue a press release at the beginning of the season explaining the forest policy on wet weather closures.  Do a separate press release when threatened and endangered species gates are closed.  Channel 22 can help with community service announcements.
3.    Public not obeying road closures.  Inform them of the forest policy and that they are responsible for any road or resource damage if they remain behind the gate.  A Notice
4.    Accidentally locking a visitor behind a closed gate-check for people first.
5.    Getting stuck or hurt – be informed of the weather and let dispatch know where you are.
6.    Missing or unusable locks – carry extra locks, chains and lubricant.  Pre-rainy season, Patrollers need to complete a gate inventory (form is attached) to make sure the gates are properly signed and have correct locks and chains.
7.    Wrong key – carry all keys needed for wet weather gates on the District.
8.    Drive area roads on ATV.  Personnel must be certified before operating ATV.  Set up ATV training with qualified instructor on Forest or at State OHV area.  Follow all safety procedures when operating ATVs.
9.    Gate signs missing.  Gates should be signed per Regional standard (see attached diagram).  Notify the District Engineer of missing signs.
10.    Employees or private landowners drive closed roads.  When roads are closed to prevent road damage, they are closed to everyone.  If a private landowner wants to drive on a closed road, they need to take on making the road an all-season road and the subsequent maintenance.  This needs to be done by permit prior to the wet season.

C.  Procedure for closing gates:
1.    In general, after 2 inches of rain, roads are closed before large storms.  An exception to this is when an earlier storm is predicted to be major, dropping 2+ inches of rain, or if long dry spells occur between storms, etc.  Soil conditions & predicted rain should drive closure needs.
2.    Lock the gate behind you when going to check for visitors.  Note the cars that need to leave.  After your sweep, wait at the gate until everyone has left.
3.     If someone refuses to leave, explain they will be locked in for days until the road dries, and that they are responsible for any resource damage if they drive around.  Call Law Enforcement, if they still refuse to leave.
4.    Change the area closed signs on the main road or highway when the gates are closed.
5.    Inform the Front Desk of closed roads, or upcoming closures, as soon as possible.
6.    Front Desk needs to notify the SO of closures.

D.  Procedure for opening gates:
1.    Coordinate with District Engineer about road conditions.
2.    Typically wait 2-3 days after storm and check road for dryness.  Drive the 2-WD roads to check for obstacles (fallen trees/rocks, washouts, slides).
3.    Remove obstacles you can remove.  Notify your supervisor/District Engineer of obstacles that can’t be moved and arrange for removal (ex: get a qualified feller to cut out trees).
4.    Lock the gates in the open position.  Open gates if the road can be traveled safely. If there is a slide and people can turn around safely, leave the gate open; if not – the road should remain closed and arrange for fixing.
5.    Change the area closed signs on the main road or highway when the gates are opened.
6.    Inform the Front Desk of road status of opened gates as soon as possible.
7.    The Front Desk needs to notify the SO of road status.

E. Specific Road Closure Instructions:

Hi- Mountain –  8 gates, wet weather and walk through
•    Pozo-Arroyo Grande Road closures will be coordinated with the SLO County Roads Department.  The County will maintain and close the gates at the north (Pozo Station) and south end of the Pozo-Arroyo Grande Road.  The FS will help the county by contacting them when we need the road closed to protect the road from resource damage and by sweeping the road and helping with any closure.  Contact with SLO County is Tim Kate (805) 801-4738.   An email message sent to one of them would be good to document coordination.  The FS needs to get our lock added or a key to each gate if it is possible.
•    3- Gates located at Pozo Station. Three gates are at this location: two large gates and one walk-through.  All gates must be locked during wet weather closures.  The County is in charge of closing these gates.
•    1- Gate on the Arroyo-Grande side where the paved road ends.  The County is in charge of closing this gate.
•    On the Pozo side, a flip sign is located in Santa Margarita informing public that the Pozo-Arroyo Grande road is closed (FS road 30S05).
•    On the Arroyo Grande side, two signs are in place to inform visitors of gate closures.  One sign is located at the turn-off at Lopez Lake, and one sign approximately eight miles from the turn-off to Ranchita Estates where the paved road meets the gravel.
•    2- There is a gate located eight miles from Pozo Station where San Luis Obispo County and Forest Service boundaries meet.  Two gates are at this location: one large gate and one walk- through. If the County closure works, these gates will not need to be closed.
•    Garcia Ridge 4WD road gate is rarely closed.
•    1- Gate is located on Hi Mountain Ridge Road that should be closed after Hi Mountain Ridge and Hi Mountain Campground is swept.

La Brea/Colson – 5 gates – wet weather and T&E species.
•    Install a flip sign at the entrance to Colson Canyon informing the public of a gate closure 4.5 miles ahead.
•    1- At the Forest Boundary (if you can, notify Paul Antolini at 925-4464).
•    2- On the top of Rattlesnake & Colson Canyon (FS road 11N04) there is a new pipe gate and a Powder River gate.  Both gates should be closed.
•    Close the gate at Sierra Madre Road and Highway 166.
•    1- Gate located below Miranda Pines Campground, approximately five miles off the pavement on Sierra Madre Ridge road, FS Road 11N03.
•    1- Threatened and endangered species gate located two miles from Wagon Flat Campground.  This gate is closed only upon the advice of the wildlife biologist if it is needed during the red-legged frog-breeding season, approximately February through April.

Rockfront – 2 gates – wet weather and T&E species
•    1- Gate located approximately ½ mile off Highway 166 on FS Road 30S02.
•    1- Gate on Shaw Ridge that is closed during red-legged frog-breeding season, approximately February through April.  Make sure a sign is posted on the gate explaining this.
•    A sign is located five miles off Highway 101 on Highway 166 next to the Bull Canyon turn-off that must be updated when gate is opened and closed.

Pozo – 8 gates
•    3- Three gates located at Five-Points. Gate closures for Friis Road (FS road 15E04), Navajo Road (FS road 29S02), and Las Chiches OHV Trail 29S16.
•    1- Large gate and motorcycle gate at the bottom of Navajo Road 29S02.
•    2- Gates located at the entrance to Queen Bee Trail at Queen Bee Road (FS road 30S18) and exit at Pozo Summit.
•    2- Powder River gate for Powerline OHV trail located at Turkey Flats trail (FS trail 29S27) and one gate on Black Mountain road.
•    2- Gates located at Pozo Summit Road (29S01).  One on Pine Mtn Trail (30S17) and one on Las Chiches Cutoff OHV Trail, 16E05A.
•    Pine Mtn Trail (30S17) at Pozo Summit.

**When closed/opened, change the Pozo OHV Area sign at Santa Margarita & Red Hill Road to match.

Figueroa Mountain
1.    Figueroa dirt roads – 6 closed for wet weather
•    1- Lookout                                       1 gate
•    1- East Pinery                                        1 gate
•    2- Zaca Ridge Rd.  & 2- Catway OHV Trail    4 gates
Close the north gate on the Zaca Ridge Road & leave closed for the wet season.

2.    Figueroa paved roads – 4 gates.
•    1- Happy Canyon – do not close unless there is a resource damage concern (such as a slide).  Coordinate with SBRD.
•    1- Sunset Valley – normally, do not close unless there is a damage concern (such as a slide, flood or people start ripping up the areas off road to play in the mud).
•    2- Figueroa – do not close unless we are expecting snow, and then close the Ranger Peak area (two gates) to prevent motorist- pedestrian conflicts.  Coordinate with SBRD.
•    “Icy Road” signs need to be flipped before winter icy conditions begin and then closed once icy conditions are over for the season.

West Cuesta
•    Gate located where pavement turns to dirt, pass the 2nd tower.  Keep it closed all year round.
•    Gate located near the 1st tower is not normally closed.  The road is all-season up to the 2nd towers.

Bates Canyon – 2 gates
•    1 – Gate located past Bates Canyon Campground, approximately six miles from Highway 166. The turn-off is at Cottonwood Canyon, FS Road 11N01.
•    1- Gate located four miles up dirt road at intersection of Sierra Madre Ridge Road, FS 32S13.  This gate is rarely closed & can remain open if the gate at the beginning of Sierra Madre Rd & Hwy 166 is closed.

Recommended by:

______________________________ Date:____________________________
Tom Plymale
District Fire Management Officer

Approved By:

_____________________________ Date:______________________________
KATHLEEN PHELPS
District Ranger

APPENDIX D
POZO SIGN INVENTORY

STREET LEGAL VEHICLES BEYOND THIS POINT ONLY. SIGNS.  INVENTORY
ROAD # 31S06 UPPER LOPEZ AT FOREST BOUNDARY. 35. 14′ 00″ – 120. 27′ 40″
ROAD # 31S06 UPPER LOPEZ GOING TO PRIVATE PROPERTY. 35. 14′ 03″ – 120. 28′ 15″
BLACK MTN. ROAD AT TOWER TRAIL. 35. 21′ 20″ – 120. 20′ 43″
HWY # 58 AND REDHILL ROAD.    35. 24′ 12″ – 120. 16′ 43″
POZO SUMMIT ROAD EAST OF QUEEN BEE ROAD.  35. 21′ 27″ – 120. 14′ 30″
WEST CUESTA ROAD AT FOREST SERVICE GATE.   35. 23′ 40″ – 120. 42′ 36″
BLACK MTN ROAD. FIVE POINTS. AND OHV INFORMATION BOARD    35. 22′ 04″ – 120. 19′ 31″
POZO/ARROYO GRANDE ROAD AT FIRE STATION,  AND OHV  INFORMATION BOARD 35. 18′ 09″ – 120. 22′ 32″
NAVAJO ROAD. NAVAJO BYPASS TRAIL     35. 22′ 18″ – 120. 18′ 55″
BLACK MTN. ROAD AT TURKEY FLATS.   35. 20′ 53″ – 120. 21′ 01″
NAVAJO ROAD EAST OF FIVE POINTS.  35. 22′ 02″ – 120. 19′ 23″
BLACK MTN ROAD. TURKEY FLATS  #2.   35. 21′ 17″ – 120. 20′ 43″
NAVAJO ROAD WEST OF NAVAJO BYPASS TRAIL.   35. 22′ 18″ – 120. 18′ 55″
BLACK MTN ROAD AT TOWER TRAIL.    35. 21′ 20″ – 120. 20′ 43″
START OF WEST CUESTA ROAD.AND OHV  INFORMATION BOARD 35. 20′ 52″ – 120. 37′ 49″
NAVAJO ROAD SOUTHWEST OF NAVAJO STAGING AREA. 35. 22′ 37″ – 120. 17′ 11″
NAVAJO ROAD AT SOUTH END OF MCGINNIS CR.TRAIL. 35. 22′ 19″ – 120. 18′  08″
ARROYO GRANDE / POZO ROAD.LOPEZ CANYON SIDE   35. 12′ 29″ – 120. 22′ 09″
REDHILL ROAD. #29S02  NEAR INTERSECTION WITH POZO SUMMIT   35. 21′ 25″ – 120. 16′ 28″
REDHILL ROAD. #29S02  NEAR INTERSECTION WITH BURNOUT AND LAS  CHICHES TRAIL   35. 21′ 34″ – 120. 16′ 28″

POZO OHV TRAIL SIGN INVENTORY
BURNOUT TRAIL #10.  ON REDHILL ROAD AT NAVAJO STAGING.  35. 22′ 48″ – 120. 18′ 54″
QUAIL TRAIL #12 ON REDHILL ROAD.   35. 22′ 56″ – 120. 17′ 11″
BENCHMARK TRAIL # 11. ON REDHILL ROAD.  35. 23′ 07″ – 120. 17′ 13″
BURNOUT TRAIL #10. ON REDHILL ROAD.  35. 23′ 27″ – 120. 17′ 07″
BURNOUT TRAIL #10. ON REDHILL ROAD.  35. 23′ 27″ – 120. 17′ 07″
BURNOUT TRAIL #10.  REDHILL ROAD.  35. 22′ 45″ – 120. 16′ 52″
GARCIA TRAIL # 18. 0N POZO/AG ROAD.  35. 15′ 58″ – 120. 24′ 24″
HOWARDS BYPASS TRAIL # 2. ON BLACK MTN. ROAD.  35. 22′ 52″ – 120. 20′ 49″
LAS CHICHES TRAIL # 5.  REDHILL ROAD.  35. 21′ 33″ – 120. 16′ 29″
LAS CHICHES TRAIL # 5.  FIVE POINTS  35. 22′ 04″ – 120. 19′ 29″
MCGINNIS CREEK TRAIL # 17. NAVAJO STAGING AREA.  35. 22′ 40″ – 120. 17′ 07″
MCGINNIS CREEK TRAIL # 17. NAVAJO ROAD.  35. 22′ 19″ – 120. 18′ 08″
NAVAJO BYPASS TRAIL # 15. NAVAJO ROAD.  35. 22′ 18″ – 120. 18′ 16″
NAVAJO BYPASS TRAIL # 15. FRIIS ROAD.  35. 22′ 23″ – 120. 19′ 14″
POWERLINE TRAIL # 1. TURKEY FLATS.   35. 20′ 56″ – 120. 21′ 03″
QUEEN BEE TRAIL # 9. SOUTH OF C.G.  35. 20′ 42″ – 120. 13′ 54″
QUEEN BEE TRAIL # 9. NORTH OF C.G.  35. 21′ 09″ – 120. 14′ 49″
TOWER TRAIL # 4. BLACK MTN. ROAD.  35. 21′ 19″ – 120. 20′ 42″
PINE MTN TRAIL # 8. QUEEN BEE ROAD. 35. 20′ 11″ – 120. 13′ 32″
BENCHMARK TRAIL # 11. BURNOUT TRAIL.  35. 23′ 18″ – 120. 16′ 56″
PINE MTN TRAIL # 8. OBSERVATION POINT. 35. 19′ 37″ – 120. 16′ 21″
MARE SPRINGS CONECTOR AT INTERSECTION WITH BURNOUT.  35. 22′ 58″ – 120. 16′ 48″
MARE SPRINGS CONECTOR AT INTERSECTION WITH BURNOUT.  35. 22′ 58″ – 120. 16′ 48″
BURNOUT TRAIL #10. AT MARE CONECTOR.   35. 22′ 58″ – 120. 16′ 48″
BURNOUT TRAIL #10. AT LA PANZA BYPASS TR.   35. 21′ 28″ – 120. 16′ 05″
LA-PANZA BYPASS TRAIL #10A. AT BURNOUT TR.  35. 21′ 28″ – 120. 16′ 05″
LAS CHICHES CUT-OFF TRAIL #6. POZO SUMMIT R.D.  35. 20′ 50″ – 120. 17′ 40″
PINE MTN TRAIL # 8. POZO SUMMIT R.D.. 35. 20′ 50″ – 120. 17′ 40″
QUAIL TRAIL #12 INTERSECTION WITH P,G& E. R.D..   35. 22′ 43″ – 120. 17′ 30″
LA- PANZA BYPASS TRAIL # 10A.ON POZO SUMMIT R.D. 35. 21′ 18″ – 120. 15′ 05″
MCGINNIS CREEK TRAIL # 17.ACROSS FROM WILDLIFE GUZZLER   35. 22′ 26″ – 120. 12′ 38″
MARE SPRINGS # 36  INTERSECTION WITH BURNOUT.  35. 23′ 32″ – 120. 16′ 39″
MARE SPRINGS.UPPER.
POZO  OHV BULLETIN BOARD: INVENTORY

PINE MTN OHV BULLETIN BOARD AT QUEEN BEE ROAD.    35. 19′ 49″ – 120. 16′ 10″
WEST CUESTA ROAD AT FS. GATE.  35. 23′ 40″ – 120. 42′ 36″
POZO  STATION.  35. 18′ 12″ – 120. 22′ 33″
TURKEY FLATS.  35.20′ 54″ – 120. 21′ 00″
PINE MTN OBSERVATION POINT WITH OHV MAP.  35. 20′ 07″ – 120. 13′ 53″
FRIIS CAMPGROUND   35. 22′ 50″ – 120. 19′ 33″
NAVAJO CAMPGROUND.  35. 22′ 06″ – 120. 18′ 42″
REDHILL ROAD.  35. 24′ 11″ – 120. 16′ 43″
POZO ROAD AT QUEEN BEE ROAD.  35. 21′ 18″ – 120. 15′ 02″
HI-MTN CAMPGROUND 35. 15′ 40″ – 120. 24′ 46″
WEST CUESTA ROAD AT HWY # 101.  35. 20′ 50″ – 120. 37′ 45″

OTHER POZO OHV SIGNS:  INVENTORY
POZO LA-PANZA OHV ROADS AND TRAILS.FLIP SIGN  BLACK MTN. ROAD.   35. 20′ 53″ – 120. 21′ 01″
POZO LA-PANZA OHV ROADS AND TRAILS.FLIP SIGN REDHILL. ROAD.   35. 24′ 12″ – 120. 16′ 43″
POZO LA-PANZA OHV ROADS AND TRAILS.FLIP SIGN SANTA MARGARITA.   35. 23′ 27″ – 120. 36′ 03″

APPENDIX F
Selected References on OHV Trail Management1

Introduction

The literature on off-highway motorized recreation is extensive. Many bibliographies and searchable libraries of information on OHV management are already available on the internet. Why is another necessary?

This bibliography was developed specifically for managers of native-surfaced OHV trails used mainly by motorcycles and ATVs, and maintained with mechanized equipment. It is an eclectic set of references intended to provide an introduction to the OHV literature for the on-the-ground manager with limited time to keep up with the literature. The focus is on management practices that promote sustainable use with minimal impacts to water quality.

The published literature on OHVs is dominated by research on the impacts of OHV use, especially from open riding. Research on sustainable management of OHV traffic restricted to designated routes is more limited.

Although this bibliography is intended for those new to OHV management, experienced
OHV managers will also find it valuable. Several annotated bibliographies and additional resource sites are included for those who want to delve deeper into the OHV literature.
References are grouped by management activities with a direct effect on water quality and sustainability. Other OHV management activities that indirectly affect water quality and sustainability have not been included in order to keep the list short.

A major effort was made to provide a url link to a pdf file for every reference. However, the list does include a few books that must be purchased; these books have been carefully selected and are well worth the cost. The url links were active and accurate as of July 13, 2012.

Basic References

The following four books provide a solid foundation for understanding the references included in sections that follow. Parker’s Natural Surface Trails by Design provides a conceptual framework for trail design, and Chapters 5 and 7 clearly explain the processes involved in tread wear and trail drainage. The Minnesota book is comprehensive, and Chapter 6 clearly explains the processes of tread wear. Crimmins and Wernex explain OHV trails from the rider’s perspective.

Parker, T.S., 2004. Natural Surface Trails by Design. Natureshape, LLC, Boulder, CO.
http://www.natureshape.com

State of Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2007. Trail Planning, Design, and
Development Guidelines. St. Paul, MN. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/publications/trails_waterways/index.html

Crimmins, T.M., 2006. Management Guidelines for OHV Recreation. National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, Great Falls, MT.
http://www.nohvcc.org/materials/ManageGuide.aspx

Wernex, J., 1994. Off-Highway Motorcycle and ATV Trails: Guidelines for Design,
Maintenance and User Satisfaction, 2nd Ed. American Motorcyclist Association,
Pickerington, Ohio. http://www.americantrails.org/resources/motors/index.html

OHV BMPs for Water Quality

The Forest Service Water Quality Management Handbook provides a set of BMPs for OHV management at the Regional level (BMPs 4.7.1 through 4.7.9, pages 145-170); this set of BMPs also includes a good discussion on hydrologic connectivity. The report by McCullah provides a set of BMPs for management of State SVRAs, and the Trails Unlimited report provides a set of BMPs for a specific area; both are written in the traditional BMP format. The New Hampshire report is an example of BMPs at the State level. The tech tip by Barrow provides specifications for arch culverts, a cost-effective alternative to crossing watercourses with fords. Although not written specifically for OHV trails, the publication by Furniss provides a good explanation of hydrologic connectivity. Although written for roads, the Clarkin publication on low-water crossings provides many concepts that can be applied to watercourse crossings on OHV trails.

U. S. Forest Service, 2011. Soil and Water Conservation Handbook, Chapt. 10 Water Quality Management Handbook. R5 FSH 2509.22. USDA-Forest Service, Pacific SW Region, Vallejo, CA, p. 237. http://www.fs.fed.us/im/directives/field/r5/fsh/2509.22/r5-2509-22-10-2011-1.docx

McCullah, J.A., 2007. OHV BMP Manual for Erosion and Sediment Control. State of California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA, p. 317. http://ohv.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=26656

Trails Unlimited, 2012. Technical Specifications for Erosion and Sediment Control for
OHV Trails in Wolf Pen Gap, Ouachita National Forest. p. 80.

New Hampshire Bureau of Trails, 1994. Best management practices for erosion control during trail maintenance and construction. (Updated 2004). Hampshire Department of Resources and Economic Development, Division of Parks and Recreation, Bureau of Trails, Concord, NH.
http://www.americantrails.org/resources/trailbuilding/NHerosioncontrol.html

Barrow, J.D., Groenier, J.S., 2012. Plastic Bottomless Arch Culverts for Trails. Recreation Tech Tips, 1223–2315–MTDC. USDA-Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, Missoula, MT, p. 4. http://www.fs.fed.us/eng/pubs

Furniss, M.J., Flanagan, S.A., McFadin, B.A., 2000. Hydrologicallly-connected roads: An indicator of the influence of roads on chronic sedimentation, surface water hydrology, and exposure to toxic chemicals. Stream Notes, Stream Systems Technology Center. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO. www.fs.fed.us/news/roads/DOCSroad-analysis.shtml

Clarkin, K., Keller, G., Warhol, T., Hixson, S., 2006. Low-Water Crossings: Geomorphic, Biological, and Engineering Design Considerations. 0625 1808—SDTDC, National Technology and Development Program. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, San Dimas, CA, p. 366. www.fs.fed.us/t d/pubs/pdf/LowWaterCrossings/

Trail Layout and Design

Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 6 of the Minnesota guidelines provide a framework and principles for designing sustainable trails. The Forest Service training reference package provides in-depth coverage of trail management objectives. Crimmins and Wernex (listed earlier) provide an in-depth view from the rider’s perspective. Collectively, these four basic references provide the background needed for designing a sustainable trail system.

State of Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2007. Trail Planning, Design, and Development Guidelines. St. Paul, MN. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/publications/trails_waterways/index.html

USDA-Forest Service, 2011. Trail Fundamentals and Trail Management Objectives: Training Reference Package. USDA-Forest Service, Washington, D. C., p. 81.
www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5341754.pdf

Crimmins, T.M., 2006. Management Guidelines for OHV Recreation. National Off- Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, Great Falls, MT. http://www.nohvcc.org/materials/ManageGuide.aspx

Wernex, J., 1994. Off-Highway Motorcycle and ATV Trails: Guidelines for Design, Maintenance and User Satisfaction, 2nd Ed. American Motorcyclist Association, Pickerington, Ohio. http://www.americantrails.org/resources/motors/index.html

Trail Construction and Maintenance

The publications by Gonzales and Vachowski provide an introduction to some of the mechanized equipment available for OHV trail construction and maintenance. Trails 2010 explains why mechanized equipment is needed to keep up with OHV trail maintenance. The Forest Service web site on equipment is also included for more up-to date information on mechanized equipment. A checklist to assist operators maintaining trails with mechanized equipment is included in Poff and Ryan (2001). The trail notebook by Hesselbarth provides useful information for all trail builders, even though it is written for non-mechanized trail construction and maintenance. Poff (2006a) provides detailed specifications for construction and maintenance of rolling dips, and Hamilton provides some background on why this type of drainage structure is so important. Although the field guide by Guenther was written for maintenance of low volume roads, it does include some ideas that can be adapted to OHV trails. The Meyer, Steinholtz, and Groenier publications provide techniques for constructing trails in wet areas. The Ten-Step checklist by Poff (2006b) provides a simple framework for restoring OHV-damaged areas.

Gonzales, R., 1996. Mechanized Trail Equipment. 9623 1207—SDTDC. USDA Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, San Dimas, CA, p. 94.
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/download/hep/fspubs/pdf96231207.pdf

Vachowski, B., Maier, N., 1998. Off-Highway Vehicle Trail and Road Grading Equipment. 9823-2837-MTDC. USDA-Forest Service Technology and Development Program, Missoula, MT. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/fspubs/98232837/index.htm

Lockwood, Cam, 2010. Trails 2010: A Trail Construction and Maintenance Update. USDA-Forest Service, Mechanized Trail Building Equipment Web site. USDA-Forest Service, Missoula Technology & Development Center. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/rectrails/equip/

Poff, R.J., Ryan, T., 2001. A Field Evaluation of the Use of Small Trail Tractors to Maintain and Construct OHV Trails on National Forests in California. USDA-Forest Service, Pacific SW Region, Vallejo, CA, p. 34.

Hesselbarth, W., Vachowski, B., Davies, M.A., 2007. Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook, 2007 Edition. Tech. Rep. 0723–2806–MTDC. USDA Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center, Missoula, MT, p. 166. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/recreational_trails/publications/fs_publications/072 32806/lc07232806.cfm

Poff, R.J., 2006a. Rolling grade dips for drainage of OHV trails. USDA-Forest Service, Pacific SW Region, Vallejo, CA, p. 16.

Hamilton, N., 1991. Off-highway vehicle trail maintenance: Tractor techniques for trail bed preservation. USDA-Forest Service, Upper Lake Ranger District, Mendocino National Forest, p. 7.
http://nohvcclibrary.forestry.uga.edu/mgt%20ops%20and%20maintenance.html

Guenther, K., 1999. Low maintenance roads for ranch, fire and utilities access: A practical field guide. Wildland Solutions, Clyde, CA. http://nohvcclibrary.forestry.uga.edu/mgt%20ops%20and%20maintenance%20low%20m
aintenance%20roads%20abs.htm

Meyer, K.G., 2002. Managing Degraded Off-Highway Vehicle Trails in Wet, Unstable, and Sensitive Environments. 0223-2821-MTDC. USDA-Forest Service, Technology and Development Program, Missoula, MT. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/recreational_trails/publications/fs_publications/022
32821/index.cfm

Steinholtz, R.T., Vachowski, B., 2007. Wetland Trail Design and Construction. 8E82A3—Trail Treatment for Wet Areas. USDA Forest Service, Technology and Development Program, Missoula, MT, p. 90. http://www.fs.fed.us/td/php/library_card.php?p_num=0723%202804P

Groenier, J.S., Monlux, S., Vachowski, B., 2008. Geosynthetics for Trails in Wet Areas: 2008 Edition. 0823–2813–MTDC. USDA-Forest Service, Technology & Development Center, Missoula, MT, p. 27.
http://www.fs.fed.us/eng/php/library_card.php?p_num=0823%202813P

Poff, R.J., 2006b. Restoration of OHV-Damaged Areas – A Ten-Step Checklist. USDA Forest Service, Pacific SW Region, Vallejo, CA, p. 18.

Monitoring

On page 19 of Crimmins there is a short list of basic questions to ask before setting up a monitoring plan. A method for trail condition monitoring to determine the need for maintenance is described in the California State Parks 2008 Soil Conservation Standard and Guidelines. The publications by Lucey and Hall on photo point monitoring are not specific to trails, but provide basic guidelines for this simple and cost-effective monitoring. For trails, the key to photopoint monitoring is to establish random points across the whole trail network, and then follow a consistent protocol. Chilman is an example of long-term monitoring of an OHV area. Generally, OHV managers should focus on trail condition monitoring and photo point monitoring, but if more quantitative monitoring is needed, tread loss can be monitored using an erosion bridge as described by Ranger, or by collection of sediment in a silt fence trap as described in Robichaud.

Crimmins, T.M., 2006. Management Guidelines for OHV Recreation. National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, Great Falls, MT. http://www.nohvcc.org/materials/ManageGuide.aspx

CA State Parks, 2008. 2008 Soil Conservation Standard and Guidelines. California State Parks, OHMVR Division, Sacramento, CA, p. 54. http://ohv.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=26656

Lucey, W.P., Barraclough, C.L., 2001. A User Guide to Photopoint Monitoring Techniques for Riparian Areas- Field Test Edition. Aqua-Tex Scientific Consulting Ltd., Kimberley, B.C. cmnmaps.ca/cmn/files/methods/pdfs/ppmAqatex.pdf

Hall, F.C., 2002. Photo Point Monitoring Handbook: Part A–Field Procedures. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-526. USDA-Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, pp. 1-48. www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr526/

Hall, F.C., 2002. Photo Point Monitoring Handbook: Part B–Concepts and Analysis. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-526. USDA-Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, pp. 49-134. www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/3255

Chilman, K.C., Vogel, J.J., Conley, J.L., 1991. Turkey Bay: Off-Road vehicle area at land Between the Lakes. Monitoring use and impacts since 1973. Motorcycle Industry Council; Land Between the Lakes Association; Land Between the Lakes, Tennessee Valley Authority; Department of Forestry, Southern Illinois University, p. 36. http://nohvcclibrary.forestry.uga.edu/ei%20inventorying.html

Ranger, G.E., Frank, F.F., 1978. The 3-F Erosion Bridge–A New Tool for Measuring Erosion. Range Improvement Studies. State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Forestry, Sacramento, CA, p. 10. https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:QdzjuVo-wsoJ:ftp://ftpfc.
sc.egov.usda.gov/OR/Technical_Notes/Agronomy/Agronomy51.pdf+The+3-
F+Erosion+Bridge–
A+New+Tool+for+Measuring+Erosion.+Range+Improvement+Studies.+State+of+Califor
nia,+The+Resources+Agency&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiRO8UgyZbvu9PQ9
3yGrerjhbRfn6-SNHRCmx8Zb50cMQXAb1ixyDy0O1ky7HoaKp5mJxFUtyvoXlBp6WKceze703zJnIDnIp
5eU5eytBi1gGHHVNqJtz1t71-
9OTizA301BhdG&sig=AHIEtbRuY9WGR1ZhbviOds0jkxggCnQD9Q

Robichaud, P.R., Brown, R.E., 2002. Silt fences: an economical technique for measuring hillslope soil erosion. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-94. USDA-Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, p. 24. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/4543/

OHV Parks

A good publication for the design and management of OHV parks and concentrated use areas is Fogg.

Fogg, G.E., 2002. Park Guidelines for OHVs: A resource guide to assist in the planning, development, enhancement, and operation of OHV recreation facilities. National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, Sheboygan, WI. http://nohvcclibrary.forestry.uga.edu/management%20site%20planning.html

Effects of OHV Traffic

Most of the research on the effects of OHV traffic is related to uncontrolled open riding. Managers of designated OHV trails are not usually concerned with this, but may need references to some of this literature for grant applications or for environmental analysis. Ouren is a recent and extensive annotated bibliography on the effects of OHV traffic. Stokowski is another extensive annotated bibliography. Although not recent, the frequently cited book by Webb covers the literature on OHV for arid lands up through the 1980s and includes extensive bibliographies. The article by Cole discusses the impacts of non-motorized recreation on wildlands.

Ouren, D.S., Haas, C., Melcher, C.P., Stewart, S.C., Ponds, P.D., Sexton, N.R., Burris, L., Fancher, T., Bowen, Z.H., 2007. Environmental Effects of Off-highway Vehicles on Bureau of Land Management Lands: A literature synthesis, annotated bibliographies, extensive bibliographies, and internet resources. Open-file report 2007-1353. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, p. 225. http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS97030

Stokowski, P.A., LaPointe, C.B., 2000. Environmental and Social Effects of ATVs and ORVs: An Annotated Bibliography and Research Assessment. School of Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, p. 32. atfiles.org/files/pdf/ohvbibliogVT00.pdf

Webb, R.H., Wilshire, H.G. (Eds.), 1983. Environmental effects of off-road vehicles: impacts and management in arid regions. Springer-Verlag, New York. (out of print, but can be found in libraries)

Cole, D.N., 2004. Environmental impacts of outdoor recreation in wildlands. In: Manfredo, M.J., Vaske, J.J., Bruyere, B.L., Field, D.R., Brown, P.J. (Eds.), Society and Natural Resources–A Summary of Knowledge. Modern Litho, Jefferson, Missouri, pp. 107-116. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/23890

Additional Resources

The following websites are excellent sources of additional information on management of OHV trails. They include searchable databases, pdf files for download, book reviews, on-line bookstores, and links to additional resources.

National Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Conservation Council http://www.nohvcc.org/

American Trails http://www.americantrails.org

U.S. Forest Service Technology and Development Centers http://www.fs.fed.us/eng/techdev/

Federal Highway Administration, Recreational Trails Program http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/recreational_trails/resources/

Professional Trail Builders Association http://trailbuilders.org/